1 استادیار گروه مهندسی منابع طبیعی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه هرمزگان،
2 استاد گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران
3 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان هرمزگان، بندرعباس،
4 دانشجوی دکتری علوم و مهندسی آبخیز- مدیریت حوزههای آبخیز، گروه مهندسی منابع طبیعی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه هرمزگان
عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Rangelands constitute almost 52 percent of the country area computed as 164 million ha. The extent of rangelands has been estimated 84 million ha in Iran and they have been classified as good, moderate to poor and poor to very poor ones ranged as almost 10, 42 and 48 percent, respectively. One of the fundamental problems concerning land uses of rangelands is that Rangeland are not be used on the basis of their potentials and suitability and the improper land use let to excessive degradation of range. One of the potentials of arid and semiarid natural ecosystems is that these regions are prepaid area for grazing animal species. These species adopted with dry climate and conditions and they have high value. Wild goat and wild lamb such as the importance index of mammals in mountain region in a lot of dry habitat. Therefore, there isn’t enough studying about contract relationship and their habitat in Hormozgan. On the other side, these animals are one of the main food resources for carnivores such as tiger. Tiger, goat and lamb are important potential in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Many factors affect the rangeland suitability such as vegetation and abiotic factors such as land slope, hillside length, soil properties, erosion sensibility, water distributions and etc. water is a major determinant of livestock distributions and grazing. Livestock grazes from a water point to another depending on the availability of forage and water. Habitat suitability of wildlife and determining suitability for livestock investigate relationship between species and ecological factors. These modals today are such as instrument for using in protection biology and their result has high utility in different management planning for protection and rehabilitation wildlife population in protected area. It is necessary for permanent and sustainable using from these resources is evaluate ecologic potential and determining arid and semi-arid land suitability. Geno national park because of habitat degradation and hasn’t enough protection of wildlife degraded to protected area in 1351. This region is ecoton and it is interring pole of 3 grow areas (Khalig – Omani, Iran – Tourani & Zagros) from 5 grow areas in Iran. Geno has more than 60% of plant species in Hormozgan, it has 517 plant species. Because of climate changing and human degradation wild life density decreased. In IUCN report some animals are in vulnerable list (IUCN, 2009). This fact show that we need to decide for arid and semi-arid areas that they have wildlife habitat for protection and improve herbivores and mammal’s species population especially in protected area. It causes to prevent degradation and decreasing ecological potential area.
Material and methods: Geno protected area with 44598 ha with 27 15 49 – 27 29 28 north and 56 18 15 – 56 57 5 in 30 km to west north of Bandarabass. Geno has mountain with 2345 m that surrounded by plain and open hills. North of Geno is Tang Bagh river, Agah harbor Chimangan, Geno gerd tiver, Soltan Shah land and Sadgaz in east, Bandarlengeh to Kal river. Geno is far 30 km from center of Bandarabas from 1351 under manage of environment protection organization. This study was down according FAO evaluation principals for determining livestock and wildlife grazing suitability in Geno protected area. For determining wildlife grazing suitability modal, at first based map and second sub modals prepared and then we overlaid maps. Finally, region with high suitability (S1), moderate suitability (S2), weak suitability (S3) and not proper (N) determined. Although all articles effect on arid and semi-arid ecosystems suitability, but investigation of all factors is not possible. So, 3 factors are main article from final wildlife suitability modals according FAO principals (Arzani, 2006).
a) Soil Sensitivity to erosion final modal of erosion HASASIAT soil was prepared according field studding and observation investigation with EPM.
b) Forage production and determining grazing capacity: in production suitability modal, total production and production that animal can graze in every type were calculated. We measured Total production by cut and weight method (Milner and Hogs, 1968). We determined wildlife daily requirement forage for different wildlife species and then wildlife grazing capacity determined.
c) Water resources. Place of water resources by GPS registered in ArcGIS and distance of water resources map with buffer prepared. After overlaid quality and quantity and distance of water resources we identify water resources wildlife map.
Discussion and conclusion: In our study we use two parameters one ecological (slope, aspect, dem, soil, plant production, water resources, wildlife distributions) and one sub structural (distance to city and service facility and accommodations and roads). FAO modal for determining suitability. Results show that in Geno protected area we haven’t S1 and S2 area and we have 27.84 % S3 or 12415.46 ha and 32182.54 ha or 72.16 % area non suitable area. So according to finding we must manage and protect more. Although exporting modals livestock were interred wildlife suitability modals. Allowable use harvesting level, forage production, livestock more grazing and decreasing water resources are limited factors for wildlife grazing suitability. If we don’t protect and we haven’t good and principal program our suitability trend from S3 to N.