تأثیر گونۀ غیربومی Atriplex canescens بر خصوصیات خاک و فعالیت موجودات در شرایط چرا و قرق (مطالعۀ موردی مراتع شهریار)


موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور


به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر گونۀ غیربومی Atriplex canescens بر خصوصیات خاک و فعالیت موجودات در شرایط چرا و قرق، این مطالعه در دو مرتع همسال (قرق‌شده و چراشده از زمان کاشت آتریپلکس) در منطقۀ شهریار به اجرا درآمد. در هریک از حالت‌های مدیریتی، تعداد 40 پلات در اندازۀ نه مترمربعی در چهار ترانسکت سیصد متری در نظر گرفته شد. فواصل ترانسکت‌ها از هم صد متر در نظر گرفته شد و تعداد 10 پلات در طول هر ترانسکت‌‌ با فواصل 30 متر انداخته شد. در داخل پلات‌ها داده‌هایی از قبیل میزان بذر هر بوته، میزان لاشبرگ و تعداد لانۀ پای بوته‌ها ثبت گردید. تعداد 5 پلات نیز به‌طور تصادفی، در طول هر ترانسکت مشخص شد و در پای بوته‌ها نسبت به حفر پروفیل خاک اقدام و از دو عمق سطحی و تحتانی خاک نمونه‌برداری گردید. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون t مستقل در نرم‌افزار SPSS انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که میزان بذر تولیدی، مقدار لاشبرگ پای بوته و تعداد لانۀ پای بوته‌ها به‌طور معنی‌داری در منطقۀ قرق، بیشتر از منطقۀ چراشده است. ازاین‌رو می‌توان گفت که قرق با ایجاد شرایط مناسب گیاهی در ازدیاد فعالیت موجودات در منطقه، مؤثر بوده است. همچنین آتریپلکس در شرایط قرق، هرچند باعث افزایش ازت و پتاسیم خاک سطحی می‌شود، با افزایش سدیم و هدایت الکتریکی تأثیرات منفی بیشتری بر خاک دارد. لذا با توجه به افزایش موجودات جونده و شور کردن خاک سطحی و برآیند منفی کاشت آتریپلکس بر خاک و اکوسیستم، استفاده از این گیاه باید محدود به مناطقی باشد که توان بازسازی گیاهان بومی منطقه، غیرممکن یا در حداقل ممکن باشد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying the effect of management on Atriplex canescens impact on soil properties and organisms activity (Case study: Shahriar Rangelands)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Mohebbi
  • Ehsan Zandi Esfahan
  • Alireza Eftekhari
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Atriplex canescens on soil properties and organisms' activities under grazing and exclosure conditions at Shahriar rangelands. In each site, four transects were selected by random-systematic method and 10 quadrates of nine m2 were established along transects with 30-m intervals. In each quadrate, the amount of seed per plant, litter and the number of nests under shrubs were recorded. A number of five quadrates were also established randomly along each transect, and soil profiles were dug. Soil samples were taken at two depths to measure soil properties. Data analysis was performed by independent T-test and mean comparisons were done by Duncan's multiple range test. According to the obtained results, under exclosure condition, although the study species could increase the nitrogen and potassium of surface soil, increased sodium and EC negatively affected the soil. In addition, significant differences were found for the amount of seed and litter (p<0.01), and number of nests under shrubs (p<0.05). Our results clearly showed that exclosure could be effective in providing favorable vegetation conditions and increased activity of organisms. Due to the increased number of rodents and soil surface salinization, the negative impact of Atriplex planting was proved; therefore, the use of this plant should be limited to the areas in which the restoration of native plants is impossible or at least possible.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Atriplex canescens
  • exclosure
  • Soil Properties
  • organisms' activities
  • Shahriar rangelands
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