تحلیل زمانی‌مکانی خشکسالی‌های هواشناسی و آب زیرزمینی (مطالعۀ موردی: دشت مهیار شمالی اصفهان)

نویسندگان

1 دانشکاه کاشان

2 دانشگاه کاشان

10.22052/6.15.101

چکیده

پایش خشکسالی هواشناسی و آب زیرزمینی و تعیین میزان تأخیر بین این دو نوع خشکسالی در بخش‌های مختلف مکانیِ یک منطقه می‌تواند کمک شایانی به مدیریت مصرف و صرفه‌جویی منابع آب زیرزمینی نماید. در این پژوهش، تغییرات زمانی و مکانی خشکسالی‌ها با استفاده از دو شاخص بارش استاندارد و آب زیرزمینی در منطقۀ مهیار شمالی استان اصفهان، مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که خشکسالی‌ آب زیرزمینی در بیشتر بخش‌های آبخوان به‌علت افزایش عمق آب زیرزمینی و احتمالاً به‌دلیل کاهش سرعت نفوذپذیری و بسته‌شدن منافذ آبرفت ناشی از تعدد چاه‌های بهره‌برداری و برداشت زیاد منابع آب زیرزمینی با تأخیر زمانی بالا (48 ماه) صورت می‌گیرد. در بخش‌ غربی آبخوان، به‌ویژه در حوالی چاه پیزومتری آجرکاخ، بیشترین همبستگی بین خشکسالی‌های هواشناسی و آب زیرزمینی در تأخیر زمانی 24 ماه، به‌ترتیب با R2 برابر با 62/0 صورت می‌گیرد. ضریب نفوذپذیری بالا، جریان ورودی از آبخوان مجاور، تغذیۀ جانبی ناشی از سازند‌های نفوذ‌پذیر آهکی نزدیک به دشت، حفظ تخلخل مؤثر آبخوان و کنترل پدیدۀ نشست به‌علت تجمع آب انتقال‌یافته از کانال مهیار در حوالی این چاه‌ها، از دلایل پاسخ نسبتاً سریع سطح آب زیرزمینی نسبت به نوسانات بارش در این مناطق است. همچنین نتایج پهنه‌بندی مکانی خشکسالی‌های هواشناسی و آب زیرزمینی، مبین افزایش میزان زمان تأخیر بین خشکسالی هواشناسی و آب زیرزمینی و گسترش شدت خشکسالی در بیشتر بخش‌های آبخوان با گذشت زمان است

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Meteorological and Groundwater Droughts (Case Study: Northern Mahyar Plain of Esfahan)

نویسندگان [English]

  • elham davoodi 1
  • Hoda ghasemieh 1
  • Mehdi Soleimani motlagh 2
  • Mohsen Moeinzadeh 2
چکیده [English]

Monitoring of Meteorological and groundwater droughts and determining of the lag time between these two types of droughts in spatial various locations can help in consumption management and protection of the groundwater resources. In this study, spatial and temporal changes of droughts were analyzed using the Standard Precipitation and Groundwater Resource Indices (SPI & GRI) in the northern Mahyar plain located in Esfahan province. The results showed that groundwater drought in most areas of the aquifer have occurred with a longer lag time (48 months). This is due to increase of groundwater depth and probably due to decrease permeability and blocking pores of the alluvium formations as a result of high number of exploitation wells and heavy withdrawal of groundwater resources in the area. In the western part of the aquifer, particularly around the Ajrakh piezometer, there were high correlations between meteorological and groundwater droughts in lag time of 24 months with R2 value of 0.62. In this part of the aquifer, the factors that make relatively fast response of groundwater level to precipitation fluctuations were the high permeability coefficient, input flows from the adjacent aquifer, lateral recharge caused by permeable limestone formations close to the plain, keeping of aquifer effective porosity and control of subsidence phenomenon due to transferred water from Mahyar channel. Also, the results of spatial mapping of meteorological and groundwater droughts showed increase in the amount of lag time between meteorological and groundwater droughts and expansion of drought severity in most parts of the aquifer over time.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hydrogeologic Drought
  • Overexploitation
  • Propagation Drought Time
  • Mahyar Plain
  • Lag time
1. Ahmadi Akhurmeh, M., Nohegar, A., Soleimani Motlagh, M., Taei Semiromi, M., 2015. Evaluation of groundwater drought using SPI and GRI indicators in the aquifer of Marvdasht Fars Kharameh. Irrigation & Water Engineering Journal 6, 105-107. 2. Ashraf A and Ahmad Z, 2008. Regional groundwater flow modelling of Upper Chaj Doab of Indus Basin, Pakistan using finite element model (Feflow) and geoinformatics. Geophysical Journal International. 173: 17–24. 3. Babaei Fini, A., Alijani, A., 2013. Spatial analysis of long-term drought in Iran. Journal of Geographical Studies 45:3, 1-12. 4. Barker LJ, Hannaford J, Chiverton A, Svensson C, 2015. From meteorological to hydrological drought using standardised indicators. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 12:12827–12875. 5. Chamanpira, Gh.R., Ahmadi, H., Malekian, A., 2014. The effect of drought on groundwater resources in order to manage optimally, Case study: Plain Aleshtar. Journal of Engineering and watershed management 6: 1, 10-20. 6. Dracup JA, Lee KS and Paulson EG, 1980. On the definition of droughts. Water Resources Research 16(2): 297-302. 7. Karamouz, M., Araghinejad, Sh., 2005. Advanced Hydrology. Amirkabir University Press. 8. Khan S, Gabriel HF and Rana T, 2008. Standard precipitation index to track drought and assess impact of rainfall on watertables in irrigation areas. Irrigation and Drainage Systems. 22: 159–177. 9. Korani, A., Khaje, M., 2014. Evaluation the drought trend and decline in groundwater levels (Case study: Plain Darab). The Journal of Spatial Planning 18:2, 57-80. 10. Malekinejad, H., Soleimani Motlagh, M., 2011. Evaluate the severity of meteorological and hydrological droughts in the Chaghalvandi basin. Iran Water Research Journal 5: 9, 61-72. 11. McKee TB, Doesken NJ and Kleist J, 1993. The relation of drought frequency and duration to time scales. Pp. 179- 184. Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology. Conference Location Anaheim, California. American Meterological Society, Boston. 12. Mendicino G, Senatore A and Versace P, 2008. A Groundwater Resource Index (GRI) for drought monitoring and forecasting in a Mediterranean climate. Journal of Hydrology 357(3): 282-302. 13. Mohamadi Ghaleney, M., Ebrahimi, K., Araghinejad, Sh. 2012. The effects of climatic factors on the loss of groundwater resources (case study: Saveh aquifer). Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 19:4, 189- 200. 14. Naderi Homami, J. 2011. Quantitative and qualitative study of the groundwater resources of the northern Mahyar plain aquifer using the Visual MODFLOW computer code, M.S.C Thesis. Faculty of Natural sciences, University of Tabriz. 15. Naderianfar, M., Ansari, H., 2011. Evaluate the effects of severity and duration drought in different time scale on groundwater level fluctuation (case study: Naishabur plain). Journal of Water Resources Engineering 4, 1-15. 16. Panda DK, Mishra A, Jena SK, James BK and Kumar A, 2007. The influence of drought and anthropogenic effects on groundwater levels in Orissa, India. Journal of Hydrology. 343: 140– 153. 17. Raziei, T., Daneshkar, P., Akhtari, R., Saghafian, B., 2007. Evaluation of meteorological drought in Sistan and Baluchestan province using SPI index and Markov Chain Model. Journal of Water Resources Iran 3: 1, 25-35. 18. Redmond KT, 2002. The depiction of drought. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 83: 1143–1147. 19. Rezaei, M., Morid, S., Delavar, M., 2013. Assess the impact of climate change on hydrometeorological variables on Siminehrood basin. Journal of water and soil 27: 6, 1247- 1259. 20. Seif, M., Mosaedi, A., Mohamadzade, H., 2013. "Investigation of hydrogeological Drought in the aquifer Fasa plain using GRI Index". 15 th Congress of geosocie. Tehran. 21. Shahid SH and Hazarika MK, 2009. Groundwater Drought in the Northwestern District of Bangladesh. Water Resources Management. 24(10): 1989-2006. 22. Shakiba, A., Mirbagheri, B., Kheiri, A., 2010. Drought and its impact on groundwater resources in the East of Kermanshahprovince by using SPI index. Geography journal 8:25, 105- 124. 23. Soleimani Motlagh, M., 2011. Optimal management of the exploitation of groundwater resources in drought conditions by using MODFLOW (case study: Aleshtar plain). M.Sc. thesis, University of Yazd. 146 pp. 24. Vicente-Serrano SM and Lopez- Moreno JI, 2005. Hydrological response to different time scales of climatological drought: an evaluation of the Standardized Precipitation Index in a mountainous Mediterranean basin. Hydrology and. Earth System Sciences. 9: 523–533. 25. Vicente-Serrano, SM., Chura, O., López-Moreno, JI and Azorin-Molina, C. 2014. Spatio-temporal variability of droughts in Bolivia: 1955–2012. International Journal of Climatology. 35(10): 3024–3040.