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Abstract:  
Introduction
The relationship between soil and vegetation is a complex processes and difficult to be simulate by mathematic and statistical models. Soil, vegetation and atmosphere are interacted together and it is not sufficient to compare one by one. Vegetation is a basic factor for soil and as a complex parameter has a strong effect on ecosystems. In the arid and semiarid areas, this factor has more effects and it is more difficult to be rehabilitate in the arid and desert regions. Generally, plants make changes in soil physical and chemical characteristics, therefore, awareness of interactions between these components is necessary and using these knowledge, could be useful for rehabilitation of the vegetations. Capparis spinosa as a natural, resistant and adaptable plant in desert area is known as a multipurpose species has been identified in recent years. This species has a high resistance about wind and because of a big roots and big coverage can conserve a wide soil surface and stabilize sand dunes. Hence, it can be a suitable species for soil and water conservation and also desert control. It also can be introduce for control dust storms in different regions.
Materials and methods
In the current study, for investigation the effects of Capparis spinosa on soil characteristics, field study, satellite images, GIS, laboratory analysis and statistical software results have been used. First, distribution map of the species has been made using field observation and liner transect used for calculation of coverage percent in the growing season. Then, other plant characteristics including canopy percent, soil conservation percent and other factors were calculated using 69 random selected studied species. For investigation the effects of Capparis spinosa on soil physical and chemical characteristics, 5 soil profiles from every stands were selected and from the 2 layers (surface and subsurface layers) samples were moved to laboratory (totally 30 samples). In the laboratory, chemical factors including N, K, P, OC, ESP, CEC, Ca, Mg, CaSO4, CaCO3, Cl, HCO3, pH, EC and SAR are measured.
 
Result
Investigation the amounts of chemical parameters in plant aboveground organs show that for all seven factors (N, C, P, K, Na, Ca, C/N) are more, related to the soil under species.  In another hand, for seven parameters (OC, ESP, Ca, Na, EC, pH, SAR) there were statistical differences between land uses and depth. For land uses, EC and pH and for depth Ca, OC and Cl showed differences in 5% level.  For physical soil factors, actual soil moisture and saturated soil moisture show a strong relationship to depth and they are more in both depth, comparing to control part, although for the other parameters (clay, silt, sand, field capacity and wilting point) there were not statistical different. Results also indicated that, the presence of studied species cause decrease of salinity and increase of alkalinity in the soils. Variation of organic matters in subsurface layer of control part and surface layer of under species were in higher level and show that this species cause increase of organic carbon of soils comparing to other stands. Results also show increases of OC, Na, Cl and HCO3 in the soils under species.
 
Discussion and Conclusion
Base on the results, Capparis spinosa species has a reliable effects on soil characteristics and it can change soil texture, increasing organic matter, soil moisture, also soil conservation and erosion control. It has also a positive effects on chemical parameters including decreasing salinity, increasing alkalinity and also increasing OC, Na, Cl, HCO3 and soil fertility. Hence, because of multiple applications of the studied species, it can be a suitable choice for combating desertification in the region and other similar areas.
Keywords: Capparis spinosa, Soil Properties, Combat to Desertification, Eyne-khosh
     
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Desert
Received: 2020/07/12 | Accepted: 2020/11/22