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Abstract:  
Extended Abstract
Introduction
The complex and dynamic nature of watershed problems requires flexible and transparent decision-making that embraces a diversity of knowledgechr(chr(chr('39')39chr('39'))39chr(chr('39')39chr('39')))s and values. For this reason, stakeholder participation in natural decision-making has been increasingly sought and embedded into national and international policy although many benefits have been claimed for participation; disillusionment has grown amongst practitioners and stakeholders who have felt let down when these claims are not realized. Watershed projects play an increasingly important role in managing soil and water resources throughout the world. Consciousness of preventing factors affecting on stakeholder participation in watershed areaschr(chr(chr('39')39chr('39'))39chr(chr('39')39chr('39'))) plans is a main principle in realization of effective participation of stakeholder and obtaining integrated watershed management goals. Therefore, it is necessary to find the reasons if the concerned authorities to encourage them to share the burden of conservation activities on the catchments they live on, or benefit from. Various factors cause the lack of public participation in watershed development projects. The purpose of this study was to identify, classify and prioritize these factors based on local people as well as expertchr(chr(chr('39')39chr('39'))39chr(chr('39')39chr('39')))s viewpoints in Bozijan watershed of Markazi Province.
 
Materials and methods
Different factors can prevent stakeholderchr(chr(chr('39')39chr('39'))39chr(chr('39')39chr('39'))) participation that they have been classified into economic, social, human and planning indices. So first, these factors were identified and categorized based on the previous studies, interviews with experts, and residents and stakeholders of the watershed. Then, pairwise comparisons and likert questionnaires were prepared as a measuring tool and the validity of the questionnaires was confirmed based on the opinions of the experts. In the next step, the sample size was determined by Cochran formula and the 101 questionnaires were completed. Finally, the indicators and sub-indicators which preventing the participation of the people were prioritized using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process and Friedman Test.
 
Result
After collecting many factors that cause prevent stakeholderchr(chr(chr('39')39chr('39'))39chr(chr('39')39chr('39')))s participation in watershed projects, they are classified as indicators and sub-indices for the Bozijan watershed. The selected indicators are Educational-extensional, social, design-executive and economic.
In this research 8 and 100 questionnaires (for experts and peoples, respectively) were analyzed by T test, Analytical Hierarchy Process and Friedman nonparametric test. The results showed that from the viewpoint of experts in the Bozijan watershed the educational-extensional, design-executive, economic and social indicators, respectively, have the maximum and minimum priority of non-participation sustainable rural communities are in watershed management projects. But from viewpoint of rural the Educational-extensional, economic, design-executive and social indicators, respectively, have the maximum and minimum priority. Also, Experts showed the most important sub-indicators on the lack of sustainable rural societies participation in the watershed management projects in this watershed are: "Concentrate on the decision-making power of design and implementation in the Directorate General Concentrate on the decision-making power of design and implementation in the Directorate General", "Senior people of the basin" and Non-training of basin people by executive experts" and "ethnic and local disagreements among the people of the basin" had the least relative priority in the lack of sustainable participation of rural societies in the watershed management plans. The range of average ratings varies from 3.79 to 11.6. Besides that, based on people viewpoints, "mistrust about the benefits of projects", " ignoring income for the people as a direct incentive to implement plans Watershed management" and Lack of sense of belonging in the areas of project implementation by the residents of the basin" were ranked as the most important sub-indices. The range of average ratings varies from 3.096 to 10.86.
 
Discussion and Conclusion
As it is evident, from the viewpoints of experts and people living in the basin, the educational-extensional indicator is prioritized, and then from the point of view of experts and people, the design-executive and economic aspects are prioritized, respectively. In other words, both groups believe that pre-planning and implementation activities should be conducted, field-based, informative, and promotional and educational, which are also confirmed by Rahimzadeh and Charmchian (2019) and Mahmoudi and et al (2018).
From the peoplechr(chr(chr('39')39chr('39'))39chr(chr('39')39chr('39')))s perspective, the order of the sub-categories emphasizes that any kind of decision-making in the watershed will somehow affect their lives. So people expect to be involved in decision-making and then pay attention to economic approaches. Employees also accept peoplechr(chr(chr('39')39chr('39'))39chr(chr('39')39chr('39')))s role in decision-making and planning of executive tasks, in other words, both peoplechr(chr(chr('39')39chr('39'))39chr(chr('39')39chr('39')))s groups and experts have the need for mutual communication and participation. They approve the planning of the watershed. Confirmation of this can be found in the studies of Perry and Thompson (2019) and Crevier and Parrott (2019). They also reported the interrelationship between the needs and goals of watershed stakeholders (executives and people) in the watershed and emphasize the need for rational interaction. Kang and Park (2015) have also suggested the involvement of watershed stakeholders in the context of adaptive management within the context of effective watershed management.
     
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Sciences and Watershed Engineering
Received: 2020/02/25 | Accepted: 2020/12/13

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