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Background and Objective: dust storm is a destructive phenomenon and is a serious threat for human societies, especially in arid and semi-arid regions.., dust storm is an irreversible destructive phenomenon and has irreparable effects. One of the most important environmental crises in arid and semi-arid areas is the destructive phenomenon of desertification and wind erosion, which is  a consequence of the occurrence of dust  storms and the movement of fine soil particles.  dust storms have social and economic consequences for humans; for example, the intensification of the migration of people, especially elite and specialist in dust-affected areas, unemployment with reduced income in various urban and rural jobs, reduction Crop production, tourism downturn, disruption to air transportation, closure of training and recreation centers.. Dust storms have detrimental effects on the health and economy of society and climate change, and understanding the nature, origin and effects of dust storms has an important role in determining its control methods. The purpose of this study is to show the causal relationships between factors affecting dust storms using the DPSIR model and weighing the identified criteria and indices by the experts using the AHP technique and ranking the specified strategy by TOPSIS, in  the Rigan area of Kerman province.
Materials and Method: In this research, based on resource reviews and field visits, the cyclic causes of wind erosion were closed using the DPSIR framework. The criteria and indices identified by questionnaire were verified by experts (in departments of Environment, Natural Resources, Agricultural-Jahad, Environmental Health, Urban Planning, and University Professor). Validity and reliability were measured by SPSS software. Selected criteria are the same as the four main elements of the DPSIR model: the driving force, pressure, state and effect, each containing a number of indices.  driving force indices are population growth, – inward Immigration, land use, Natural resources management, Increase in water demand, People's awareness, Urban development; pressure indices are health, security, Immigration, Employment status, Income status, Investment, Agriculture, Environment; state indices are  the land use change,  Environmental degradation, Utilization of water resources, Rising disease, inward immigration, Reducing social welfare, Destruction of agricultural products, soil destruction, Air Pollution, effect indices are Destroying the beauty of the city, Immigration from villages, - Increasing Types of Respiratory Diseases, Destruction of Natural Resources, Expert migration- Changing in landform, Increasing air Particles, Drought,  Reduces the productivity of agricultural products. Criteria and indices were weighted by AHP method in Expert choice software and finally, the proposed strategies were ranked by TOPSIS method.
Results: In this study, using the DPSIR model, the cycles of the factors influencing the dust storms were closed and then, the identified criteria and the indices by the experts were weighed using the AHP technique in the  Expert Choice software, Based on the results, among the four criteria, the driving foece with the weight of 0.379 was ranked first and then the pressure with the weight of 0.257, the state with the weight of 186 and  , the effects with weight 160/0 were ranked respectively. Among the final weight of Indices, Population growth rates with weight of 0.75, increasing water demand with weight of 0.67 and environment with weight of 0.059,  ranked first to three respectively. Finally the TOPSIS method was used to rank the responses, as follows: 1- Proper management of water resources (592/0) 2- Prevention of dam construction (5/175) 3- Pebble mulch (0,75%)) 4.  Non-use of inefficient models, especially in agriculture (519/0) 5. Enforce of existing laws regarding environmental protection (494/0) 6- Seedling operations (427/0) 7- Increasing people's awareness (0.415) 8. Mulching (0.440) 9. Construction of sediment trap (0.339) 10. Biological wind breaker (0.346).
Discussion and Conclusion: One of the most important environmental crises in arid and semi-arid regions is the dust phenomenon, which is a threat to human survival. Kerman province accounts for more than 17.6 percent of the country's desert surface, which significant part of these deserts are in the east of the province. The four regions of Rigan, Fahraj, Norshshir and Bam  contain 1302,000 hectares of desert land and more than 55 percent of the province's total areas. Due to the frequent droughts, seasonal rivers drying, lack of suitable vegetation and high evaporation, the number of dust storms in the city of Reagan is high. . In the present study, DPSIR model was found to be effective in identifying the most important factors affecting local dust among the various factors provided by experts. This result is in line with the results of Khatibi et al (2015) who emphasized the necessity of using this model in solving environmental problems. As well as Salehi and Zabbardast (2016), using the causative-effect chain model (DPSIR), identified and categorized the factors affecting on air pollution in Tehran city with cooperation of the Tehran environmental organization and responded to the existing conditions.. The results showed that the driving force with the weight of 0.397 had the highest weight and then the pressure (0.275), state (0.186), effects (0.160) were ranked respectively. In fact, the results of this study show that by accurately identifying the driving forces in each region, it can be a great help to solve their problems. This result is in line with the results of Jafarzadeh Haghighi Fard et al. (2013). In the final weighting, it was found that population growth with a weight of 0.5 is the most important index. This result is in agreement with the results of Shahi et al. (2018) and Nemati and Sardari Leather (2017). The results showed that proper management of water resources in different areas and utilization of nature elements for its conservation are of high importance.
Type of Study: Research | Subject: environment
Received: 2019/05/26 | Accepted: 2019/08/27

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