Volume 5, Number 13 (3-2017)                   DEEJ 2017, 5(13): 39-56 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


This study investigates the effect enclosure on some soil characteristics in two different climates; include semi-arid climate (Incheh boron region) and Cold climate of semi-humid (Chahar bagh) in Golestan province. In order to do soil sampling by the systematic-random methods, 5 transect were used in each areas and Physical and chemical properties were measure. T-test method was used in order to compare the soil parameters of same depths. Principle component analysis (PCA) and the data ratio percentage changes were used to understand the role of climate and determine the most important factors that are affected by enclosure and climate. The result of PCA showed that the most important factors that affected by enclosure and climate and cause to separate sites are Organic carbon, Nitrogen, EC, Caco3 and clay. Results showed that temperature cause to enclosure have the maximum effect in Incheh boron on Organic carbon and Nitrogen with aigen value (-0.994) and (-0.910), respectively, and cold climate cause to enclosure have maximum effect in Chahar bagh on EC, caco3 and clay with aigen value of (0.989), (0.982) and (0.987), correspondingly. According to same enclosure duration, it seems Mountainous area and cold and freezing have a greater impact on soil properties rather than Rainfall, and subsequently cause to reduce soil changes in this region, so Chahar bagh region needs more time for enclosure.

Type of Study: Research | Subject: Range Management
Received: 2016/07/19 | Accepted: 2017/01/11 | Published: 2017/02/26

1. Aarons, S.R., Hosseini, H.M., Dorling, L., Gourley, C.J.P., 2004. Dung decomposition in temperate dairy pastures as contribution to plant available soil phosphorus. Aust. J. Soil Res 42: 115-123p.
2. Aghasi, M.J., Bahmanyar, M.A., Akbarzadeh, M., 2006, Comparison of the effects of grazing and water, vegetation and soil parameters on pastures Kiasar Mazandaran province. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 13(4): 73-84.
3. Al-Seekh, S.H., Mohammad, A., Amro, Y., 2009. Effect of Grazing on Soil Properties at Southern Part of West Bank Rangeland, Hebron University Research Journal. 4(1): 35 – 53.
4. Alvarez, R., Lavado, R.S., 1998. Climate, organic matter and clay content relationships in the Pampa and Chaco soils, Argentina. Geoderma 83:127–141.
5. Álvaro-Fuentes, J., Easter, M., and Paustian, K., 2012. Climate change effects on organic carbon storage in agricultural soils of northeastern Spain, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 155: 87–94.
6. Amiri jahromi, H., Naseri, E., Khormali, F., Movahedi Naeini, A., 2008. Changes in the properties and characteristics of the soil of the earth, posing in various positions with the parent material of loess soils in two different climates in Golestan Province. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 16(1).
7. Ardakani, M.R., 2014. Ecology, Tehran University publication. 340 p.
8. Arzani, H., 2009. The daily needs of pasture forage quality and grazing animals. Tehran University Press.
9. Baghernejad, M., 1999. Clay mineralogy of the different physiographic units of Fars Province. 6th Congress of Soil Science, Mashhad, (In Persian).
10. Behmanesh, B., Heshmati, Gh. A., Yaghani, M., 2008, Determination maintain the diversity of medicinal plants Chaharbagh mountain rangelands, Golestan province. Rangeland journal, 2: 141-150.
11. Bewket, W., Stroosnijder, I., 2003. Effects of Agro-ecological Land Use Succession on Soil Properties in Chemoga Watershed, Blue Nil Basins, Ethiopia, Geoderma 111: 85-95
12. Bihamta, M.R., Zare Chahuki, M.A., 2008. Statistics on the principles of Natural Resources, Tehran University Press.
13. Bouyoucos, C.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soil. Agron. J 54:464-465.
14. Buol, S.W., Hole, F.D., McCarken, R.J., 1989. Soil genesis and classification. 2nd ed. The lowa state university press
15. Campos, A.C., Oleschko, L.K., Etchevers, J.B., Hidalgo, C.M., 2007. Exploring the effect of changes in land use on soil quality on the eastern slope of the Cofre de Perote Volcano (Mexico). Forest Ecology and Management 248: 174–182.
16. Chaneton, E. J. and Lavado. R. S., 1996. Soil nutrients and salinity after long-term grazing exclusion in a flooding pampa grassland. Journal of rang management 49: 182-187.
17. Conant, R.T., Ryan, M.G., Agren, G.I., Birge, H.E., Davidson, E.A., Eliasson, P.E., Evans, S.E., Frey, S.D., Giardina, C.P., and Hopkins, F.M., 2011. Temperature and soil organic matter decomposition rates – synthesis of current knowledge and a way forward. Global Change Biology. 17(11):3392-3404.
18. Dahlgren, R.A., Beottinger, J.L., Huntington, G.L., Amundson, R.G., 1997. Soil development along an elevation transect in the western Sierra Nevada. California. Geoderma 78: 207-236.
19. Dai, W. and Y. Huang. 2006. Relation of soil organic matter concentration to climate and altitude in zonal soils of China. Catena 65: 87-94.
20. De Vries, F.T., Manning, P., Tallowin, J.R.B., Mortimer, S.R., Pilgrim, E.S., Harrison, K.A., Hobbs, P.J., Quirk, H., Shipley, B., and Cornelissen, J.H., 2012. Abiotic drivers and plant traits explain landscape-scale patterns in soil microbial communities. Ecology Letters. 15(11):1230-1239.
21. Díaz, S., Lavorel, S., de Bello, F., Qu etier, F., Grigulis, K., Robson, T.M., 2007. Incorporating plant functional diversity effects into ecosystem service assessments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104(52):20684-20689.
22. Donkin, M.J., Fey, M.V., 1993. Relationships between soil properties and climatic indices in southern Natal. Geoderma 59: 197-212
23. Dormaar, J.F. and Willms, W.D., 1988. Effect of forty-four years of grazing on fescue grassland soils. Journal of Range Management 51: 122-126.
24. Dormaar, J.F., Smoliak, S., Willms, W.D., 1989. Vegetation and Soil Respons to short duration grazing on Fescue Grass land. Range management 42: 252-256.
25. Frank, A.B., Tanaka, D.L., Hofman, L., Follett, R. F., 1995. Soil carbon and nitrogen of Northern Great Plain Grasslands as Influenced by Long term Grazing. Journal Range Management 48: 470-474.
26. Gottschalk, P., Smith, J. U., Wattenbach, M., Bellarby, J., Stehfest, E., Arnell, N., Osborn, T. J., Jones, C., and Smith, P., 2012. How will organic carbon stocks in mineral soils evolve under future climate? Global projections using RothC for a range of climate change scenarios, Biogeosciences 9: 3151–3171.
27. Harms, B., R. Dalal and S. Pointon. 2002. Paired sites sampling to estimate soil organic carbon changes following land clearing in Queensland. Proceeding of 17th World Congress of Soil Science, 14-21 August 2002, Thailand, Paper No. 1128.
28. Haydar Aghakhani, M., Naghi poor, A.A., Tavakoli, H., 2010. The effect of grazing on vegetation and soil Sisab rangelands, Bojnord. Journal of Research RANGE AND DESERT RESEARCH Iran. 17(2): 243-255.
29. Holechek, J., Pieper, R., Herbbel, C., 1989. Range management princciples and practices. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, Englweood Cliffs, New Jersy.
30. Jafari Haghighi, M., 2003. Sampling and analysis of physical and chemical soil analysis methods with an emphasis on theory and practical importance. Nedai Zehi publications.
31. Jafari, M., Ebrahimi, M., Azarnivand, H., Madahi, A., 2009. The effect of different operation range improvement on some factors of soil and vegetation cover Sirjan. Rangeland Journal. 3(3): 371-384.
32. Jalilvand, H., Tamartash, R., Heydarpoor, H., 2007. The effect of grazing on rangeland vegetation and some soil chemical properties in Noshahr Kojour. Rangeland journal, 1(1); 53-66.
33. Jeddi, K., Chaieb, M., 2010. Changes in soil properties and vegetation following livestock grazing exclusion in degraded arid environments of South Tunisia. Flora 205:184–189.
34. Kohandel, A., Arzani, H., Tavasol, M.H., 2009. The effects of different grazing intensity on nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter in the steppe rangelands Savojbolagh. Journal of Watershed Management Engineering. 3(6): 59-65.
35. Kumbasli, M., Makineci, E., Cakir, M., 2010. Long term effects of red deer (Cervus elaphus) grazing on soil in a breeding area, Journal of Environmental Biology 31: 185-188
36. Li, X. and Z. Chen. 2004. Soil microbial biomass C and N along a climatic transect in the Mongolian steppe. Biol. Fertil. Soils 39:344-351.
37. Liebig, M.A., Gross, J.R., Kronberg, S.L., Hanson, J.D., Frank, A.B., Phillips, R.L., 2006. Soil response to long-term grazing in the northern Great Plains of North America, Agriculture. Ecosystem Environment 115: 270-276.
38. Mahjoory, R.A., 1979. The nature and genesis of some salt-affected soils in Iran. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J 43: 1019-1024.
39. Mapfumo, E., M.A. Naeth, V.S. Baron, A.C. Dick and D.S. Chanasyk. 2002. Grazing impacts on litter and roots: Perennial versus annual grasses. J. Range Manag. 55: 16-22.
40. Martinez-Mena, M., Lopez, J., Almagro, M., Boix-Fayos, V., Lbaladejo, J., 2008. Effect of Water Erosion and Cultivation on the Soil Carbon Stock in a Semiarid Area of South-East Spain, Soil and Tillage Research 99: 119-129.
41. Mesdaghi, M., 2005. Plant Ecology. Jihad Daneshgahi of MashHad Press.
42. Mesdaghi, M., 2007. Rangeland management in Iran. Fifth edition, Ghods Razavi publication.
43. Miles, J., 1985. The prodogenic effects of different species and vegetation types and the implication of succession. J. Soil Sci 36: 571-584
44. Miller, R.W., Donahue, R.L, 1990. Soils, an introduction to soils and plant growth. Prentice Hall, Inc
45. MirzaAli, A., Mesdaghi, M., Erfanzadeh, R., 2006. The effect of grazing on the vegetation and topsoil salt grasslands Gomishan in Golestan Province. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 13(2): 194-202.
46. Nichols, J.D, 1981. Relationship of soil organic to other soil properties and climate in southern Great Plain. P. 202 in Agron. Abst. ASA. Masion, WI.
47. Pei, S.h., Fu, H., Wan, C., 2008. Changes in soil properties and vegetation following exclosure and grazing in degraded Alxa desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, China, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 124: 33-39.
48. Pietri, J.C.A., Brookes, P.C., 2008. Relationships between soil pH and microbial properties in a UK arable soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 40(7):1856-1861.
49. Rameshni, K.h., Abtahi, A., 1995. Effect of climate and topography on the formation of the soils of Kuhgiluye area. 4th Congress of Soil Science. Isfahan University of Technology, (In Persian).
50. Ray, L.L., 1963. Silt-clay ratios of weathering profiles of peorian loess along the Ohio valley. J. Geol 71: 38-47.
51. Raziei, T., Azizi, G.h., 2007. A precipitation-based regionalization in western iran using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Iran-Water Resources Research 3(2), 62-65
52. Salehi, H., Loghman, H., 2001. Restoration and improvement of desert pastures through approach to the index in the desert vegetation’s (check in Iran's central desert). Proceedings of the Second National Seminar on pasture and rangeland in Iran, The Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands.
53. Schimel, D.S., Braswell, B.H., Holland, E.A., McKeown, R., Ojima, D.S., Painter, T.H., Parton, W.J., Townsend, A.R., 1994. Climatic, edaphic, and biotic controls over storage and turnover of carbon in soils. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 8(3):279-293.
54. Schmidt, M.W., Torn, M.S., Abiven, S., Dittmar, T., Guggenberger, G., Janssens, I.A., Kleber, M., Kögel-Knabner, I., Lehmann, J., Manning, D.A., 2011. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property. Nature. 478(7367):49-56.
55. Sheidai Karkaj, E., Jafari Footami, I., Sasanifar, S., 2015. The role of different computation methods in the change of estimated soil carbon sequestration (Case Study: Chaharbagh summer rangelands, Golestan province). Rangeland journal, 9 (4): 420-430.
56. Smith, J., Smith, P., Wattenbach, M., Zaehle, S., Hiederer, R., Jones, R.J., Montanarella, L., Rounsevell, M.D., Reginster, I. and Ewert, F., 2005. Projected changes in mineral soil carbon of European croplands and grasslands, 1990–2080.Global Change Biology 11(12): 2141–2152..
57. Sparling, G.P., 1992. Ratio of microbial biomass carbon to soil organic carbon as a sensitive indicator of changes in soil organic matter. Aust J Soil Res 30: 195-207.
58. Steffens, M., Kolbl, A., Totsche, K.U., Kogel-Knabner, I., 2008. Grazing effects on soil chemical and physical properties in a semiarid steppe of Inner Mongolia (P.R. China), Geoderma 143: 63-72.
59. Teaguea, W.R., Dowhowera, S.L., Bakera, S.A., Haileb, N., DeLaunea, P.B., Conovera, D.M., 2011. Grazing management impacts on vegetation, soil biota and soil chemical, physical and hydrological properties in tall grass prairie. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 141: 310–322.
60. Valizadeh, M., Moghadam, M., 2009. Pilot projects in agriculture. The eleventh edition. Press Parivar.
61. White, R.E., 2005. Principles and Practice of Soil Science: The Soil as a Natural Resource, 4th edn. Wiley Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ.
62. Wilson S. D. and Tilman, D. 2002. Quadratic variation in old-field species richness along gradient of disturbance and nitrogen. Ecology, 83: 492-504.
63. Wilding, L.P., Smeck, N.E., Hall, G.F., 1983. Pedogenesis and soil taxonomy. I. Concepts and interaction. Elsevier, Amsterdam. The Netherlands.
64. Yong-Zhong, S., Yu-Lin, L., Jian-Yuan, C., Wen-Zhi, Z., 2005. Influences of continuous grazing and livestock exclusion on soil properties in degraded sandy grassland, Inner Mongolia, northern China, Catena 59: 267-278.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or email:
Write the security code in the box

Send email to the article author

© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Desert Ecosystems Engineering Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb